by Stephen Mifsud
   29 Nov 2021      ()
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Linum bienne   (Pale Flax)

Linum bienne  (LINACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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Profile Date Dec-07 (taxon update: 14-Aug-2017)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2021) Linum bienne profile created on Dec-07. Retrieved from on 29-Nov-2021

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Linum bienneMiller
Published in Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8, no. 8 (1768)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Linum angustifolium
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Linaceae S.F. Gray (The Flax Family)
6 species from the Linaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Pale Flax

Maltese name(s) :

Kittien ikħal

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent     Scarce     Rare    Very rare     Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: HEMICRYPTOPHYTE ( prostate plants with flowers close to the ground )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (25/Sep/2021)

Red List (1989) :

Threatened status for the Maltese Islands and has been listed in the Red Data Book (1st ed.)

Flowering Time :

April – May

Colour of Flowers:


Name Derivation :


Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Data will be available in the next update of this website.
Preferred habitat in Malta: Data will be available in the next update of this website.
Botanical Description: Biennial or perennial (rarely annual); stems 6-60 cm, usually branched, slender, ascending or erect. Leaves 0.5-1.5 mm wide, linear or linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 1- to 3-veined. Sepals 4-5.5 mm, subequal, ovate-acuminate, with a conspicuous midvein; margin of inner sepals scarious and ciliate, margin of outer sepals entire. Petals 2-3 times as long as sepals, blue. Stigmas linear. Capsule 4-6 mm, subglobose; beak c. 1 mm, acuminate. Homostylous.
Chromosome number: 2n=30
Distributional range: W. & S. Europe, northwards to 54° N. in Britain.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Albania, the Balaeric Islands, Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Bulgaria, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Ireland, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Russia and former USSR, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part)
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
? Ab(A N) AE(G) Ag Al BH Bl(M N) Br Bu Ca Cg Co Cr Ct Cy Ga(C F) Gg(A D G) Gr Hb(E N) Hs(A G S) Ir It Jo Le Li Lu Ma Md(M P) Mk Sa Si(M S) Sl Sr Sy Tn Tu(A E) Uk(K) [nAz(F S T) Ca(C G H P T) aGe Hb(N) He nNo]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (8 images)
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-0.
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-1.
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-2.
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-3.
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-4.
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-5.
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-6.
   Linum bienne   -   Image Code: LNMBI-7.

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Section B:   Where have you seen this plant on the Maltese Islands?
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