by Stephen Mifsud
   13 Apr 2024      ()
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Borago officinalis   (Common Borage)

Borago officinalis  (BORAGINACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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General Information Species Images
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Detailed species profile
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Profile Date Mar-2004 (taxon update: Mar-2004)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Borago officinalis - datasheet created on Mar-2004. Retrieved from on 13-Apr-2024

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Borago officinalisL.
Published in Sp. Pl. 137 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Borago hortensis L.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Boraginaceae Juss. (The Borage Family)
16 species from the Boraginaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Common Borage, Common Bugloss, Burrage

Maltese name(s) :


Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent    Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: THEROPHYTE ( annual plants, herbaceous )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

December – May

Colour of Flowers:



Not particularly toxic

Name Derivation :

Borago: ancient name of unknown origin, possibly derived from the Latin word Borra which means rough hair with reference to the stiff hairs the Borago species possess. (Latin origin )
officinalis: Commercially or 'officially' used and sold in shops for medicinal or healing applications. This epithet was given in the past to plants with well-known medicinal properties. (Latin origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Dry waste places esp. close to cultivated areas.
Preferred habitat in Malta: Cultivated ground, beside field walls, uncropped fields and often along waysides.
Botanical Description: Hispid annual; stems 15-70 cm, erect, robust, often branched. Basal leaves 5-20 cm, ovate to lanceolate, petiolate; upper cauline leaves sessile, amplexicaul. Pedicels 5-30 mm, stout, patent or deflexed after anthesis. Calyx 8-15 mm at anthesis, up to 20 mm in fruit; lobes linear-lanceolate, acute, connivent in fruit. Corolla rotate, bright blue, rarely white; tube very short or almost absent; lobes 8-15 mm, lanceolate, acute. Nutlets 7-10 mm, oblong-obovoid.
Chromosome number: 2n=16
Distributional range: S. Europe naturalised or casual further North

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
the Azores, the Balaeric Islands, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part), Introduced in  Austria and Liechtenstein, Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Czeck Republic and Slovakia, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia and former USSR
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
dAE Ag Al dAz(F J L M P S T) Bl By Ca(C F G H L P T) Co Cr Ct Cy Ga dGg Gr Hs(S) It La Li LS Lt Lu Ma Md(M) Mo Rf(C E K N NW S) Sa Si(M S) Su Tn dTu(A) Tu(E) [Au(A) Br Cs Es Ge Hb(E) He Ho Hu No Po Rm Sk Uk(K)]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (59 images)
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-0.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-1.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-2.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-3.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-4.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-5.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-6.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-7.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-8.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-9.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-10.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-11.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-12.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-13.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-14.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-15.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-16.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-17.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-18.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-19.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-20.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-21.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-22.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-23.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-24.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-25.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-26.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-27.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-28.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-29.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-30.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-31.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-32.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-33.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-34.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-35.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-36.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-37.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-38.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-39.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-40.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-41.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-42.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-43.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-44.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-45.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-46.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-47.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-48.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-49.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-50.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-51.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-52.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-53.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-54.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-55.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-56.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-57.
   Borago officinalis   -   Image Code: BRGOF-58.

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