MaltaWildPlants.com by Stephen Mifsud
 
     
   27 Jan 2023      ()
External Links:
 


Nerium oleander   (Oleander)


Nerium oleander  (APOCYNACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

Page Contents + Links

 
General Information Species Images
External Links Support and sales
Submit information Facebook community
Sponsors & Adverts Copyright notes
Apocynaceae Index Plant Family Index
 
This profile is brought to you by one of the website's sponsors.
[read more...]
Profile Date Dec-2007 (taxon update: none)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Nerium oleander - datasheet created on Dec-2007. Retrieved from MaltaWildPlants.com on 27-Jan-2023

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Nerium oleanderL.
Published in Sp. Pl. 209 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Oleander vulgaris Medik.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] [Worldplants.de]

Plant Family :

Apocynaceae Juss. (The Dogbane Family)
7 species from the Apocynaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Oleander, Rose Bay

Maltese name(s) :

Difla, Olejandru, Siġret il-Ġarab

Status for Malta :

Naturalised Alien. Species that was introduced in Malta after year 1492 (Columbus' discovery of the New World) and spreads and integrates to form established, non-invasive populations. Species may become become invasive if it widespreads rapidly.

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent     Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: Macro-Phanerophyte ( high trees usually over 10 m high )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

April – December

Colour of Flowers:

Red, White or Pink

Toxicity:

Highly toxic and can lead to death even if consumed in minute quantities

Name Derivation :

Nerium:
oleander:

Planting in rural areas :

Encouraged to be planted in the wild that is in rural areas including ODZ.

Remarks :

A riparian short tree that is native to the Mediterranean region including the south of Sicily. Nerium oleander possibly existed in Malta before man, but current known populations in the Maltese islands seem to be cultivated or naturalised in suitable habitats. Some trees which were planted or naturalised in valley sides have grown to admiriable large sizes.


Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: River-banks and river-gravels. Frequently planted for ornament, and perhaps only naturalized in some areas
Preferred habitat in Malta: Cultivated as ornamental tree with some naturalised populations occurring mostly in valley sides, damp maquis or persistent in abandoned farms or field margins. Native to central and east Mediterranean region (including Sicily) where it occurs primarily as a riparian tree in wetland areas. It might have been native in Malta too, but current records appear to be naturalised from cultivated origins.
Botanical Description: Stems up to 4 m. Leaves 6-12(-15) x 1.2-2(-3) cm, linear-lanceolate, acute, coriaceous. Calyx densely glandular inside. Corolla (2-)3-4 cm in diameter, usually pink; tube 2 cm, the lobes 2 cm, obtuse, patent. Anther-appendages long, hairy, twisted. Follicles 8-16 x 0.5-1 cm, erect, reddish-brown.
Distributional range: Mediterranean region, S. Portugal
Native region outside Europe: Throughout the Mediterranean area and eastwards to central Asia.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Albania, the Balaeric Islands, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part), Introduced in  the Azores
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
? AE Ag Al Bl(I M) Co Cr Cy Ga(F) Gr Hs(S) IJ It Ju Li LS Lu Ma Sa Si(S) Tn Tu(A E) [cAz Az(F P S T) aSi(M)]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate

Wikipedia

JSTOR

GBIF

Med Checklist

Cat. of Life

EoL

IPNI

World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium

MNHN

Arkive

IUCN

CABI
Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (11 images)
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-0.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-1.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-2.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-3.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-4.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-5.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-6.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-7.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-8.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-9.
   Nerium oleander   -   Image Code: NRMOL-10.

Buy Seeds and Docs
Sales of seeds of wild plants for academic studies, research or personal use. Note that not all species seeds can be exported - depending on Maltese regulations and CITES, and availability depends on season. You are hence kindly requested to first fill and submit a quotation form by which you will get confirmation of the purchase, availability and charges. Currently local orders are not taken.   Online Quotation (Seeds)

Buy images found in this large online collection of Maltese flora photographed by the author (Stephen Mifsud). Prices reasonable and rated differently according size and resolution. Buying images for your projects will support this website. When placing an order please take note of the image code specific for every image in the corresponding species webpage (found beneath each individual photo) since this is required when filling the online ordering form. Images are normally sold as a license with the copyright reserved to the author, but sales of copyright of exceptional images can be considered.   Online Purchase (Images)
Kindly consider to support this website by giving a small donation. This will help to cover some expenses needed to maintain the website and its further development without any adverts. Please login into your PayPal account and use the email: info@maltawildplants.com as email address to send your donation   Online Donation


$int_menu2[8]
Use this form to submit more information on this species or report mistakes in this webpage. If information supplied is taken from a book, journal or website, please provide the corresponding reference or website address. Your email address is only for internal communication. Please report only Maltese locations for plants that indicated as rare or very rare (refer to the nomenclature section above). Please do report mistakes, broken links, technical errors, typing / grammar errors, misidentifications or taxonomical updates; this will help to improve the website's accuracy. Thanks you! Fill any of the three sections (A/B/C) below and kindly submit the form.     * = required fields.
Plant Species:  *
Your name:   * Your Email:   *
 
Section A:  Additional Information about this plant species
Own observations: Info from published material (books, journals, website):
Reference of published material:
 
Section B:   Where have you seen this plant on the Maltese Islands?
Locations in Malta or Gozo where you have seen this plant. Only applies for rare plants.

1:       2:       3:   
4:       5:       6:   
Try to be as concise as possible. Examples: Dingli Cliffs (near chapel), Wied Incita (Zebbug side), Triq il-Kbira (Qormi), Barriera ta' Ghajn Abdul (Xlendi), Fields East of Salib tal-gholja (Siggiewi). GPS co-ordinates are also welcomed!
Section C:  Corrections for mistakes and errors in this plant profile
Section of this page where you found an error (select one)
What is the error/mistake and suggest a correction
AntiSpam Verification: Please answer these simple questions:   90 + 7 =     This website is about
          




MaltaWildPlants.com is supported by:
[ EcoGozo, Ministry for Gozo ] [ Projects in Motion ] [ Sunrise Pet & Garden Centre] [ MycoMalta ]
Webpage is copyright of Stephen Mifsud / www.MaltaWildPlants.com - (2002-2022)