by Stephen Mifsud
   29 Jan 2023      ()
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Pancratium maritimum   (Sea Daffodil)

Pancratium maritimum  (AMARYLLIDACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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General Information Species Images
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Detailed species profile
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Profile Date Sep-2004 (taxon update: Sep-2004)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Pancratium maritimum - datasheet created on Sep-2004. Retrieved from on 29-Jan-2023

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Pancratium maritimumL.
Published in Sp. Pl. 291 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Hymenocallis maritima M.Roem.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Amaryllidaceae Jaume St.-Hil (The Daffodil or Amaryllis Family)
28 species from the Amaryllidaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Sea Daffodil, Sea Lily, Sand Lily

Maltese name(s) :

Pankrazju selvaġġ, Narċis tar-Ramel, Ġilju tar-Ramel

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent     Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: GEOPHYTE ( bearing underground bulbs, rhizomes, stolons, etc. )
Germination [info]: Monocotyledon

Legal Protection :

Protected by law: Schedule VI of [S.L. 549.44] (strictly protected species)

Red List (1989) :

Threatened status for the Maltese Islands and has been listed in the Red Data Book (1st ed.)

Flowering Time :

July – October

Colour of Flowers:



Not particularly toxic

Name Derivation :

Pancratium: Word used to refer for power and strength, probably referring to the strength of such plants which grow in extreme climates such as dry and very hot sand dunes during summer. (Greek origin )
maritimum: Maritime; related to the coast or the seashore. (Latin origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines

Remarks :

Plants always restricted to the few sand dunes located in Malta.

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Maritime sand dunes
Preferred habitat in Malta: Sandy shores
Botanical Description: Bulb very large, deeply sunk, tapered to a long neck. Leaves up to 50 cm x 20 mm, lorate, glaucous, appearing before anthesis. Scape stout, compressed. Spathe 4-7 cm. Pedicels 5-10 mm, shorter than ovary. Hypanthial tube 60-80 mm, very slender. Perianth-segments 30-50 mm, linear-lanceolate, erecto-patent to patent. Corona c. 2/3 as long as perianth-segments; margin with 12 triangular teeth. Free part of filament about equalling anther. Flowering in mid-summer.
Chromosome number: 2n=22
Distributional range: S. Europe, extending northwards in W. France

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Albania, Doubtful in the Azores, the Balaeric Islands, Bulgaria, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part)
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
AE(G) Ag Al Bl Bu Ca Co Cr Cy Eg Ga Gr Hs IJ It Ju Li LS Lu Ma Rf(CS) Sa Si Sn Tcs Tn Tu(A E) [Az]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (41 images)
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-0.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-1.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-2.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-3.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-4.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-5.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-6.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-7.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-8.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-9.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-10.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-11.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-12.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-13.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-14.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-15.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-16.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-17.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-18.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-19.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-20.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-21.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-22.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-23.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-24.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-25.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-26.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-27.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-28.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-29.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-30.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-31.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-32.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-33.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-34.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-35.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-36.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-37.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-38.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-39.
   Pancratium maritimum   -   Image Code: PNCMT-40.

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