by Stephen Mifsud
   27 Sep 2020      ()
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Cymbalaria muralis   (Ivy-leaved Toadflax)

Cymbalaria muralis   (PLANTAGINACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands at or after year 2000.

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Profile Date Oct-2010 (last update: 12-Jan-2019)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (Oct-2010) Cymbalaria muralis retrieved from on 2020-Sep-27

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Cymbalaria muralis Gaertner
Published in P. Gaertner, B. Meyer & Scherb., Fl. Wetter. 2: 397 (1800)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Linaria cymbalaria
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life ]

Plant Family :

Plantaginaceae Juss. (The Plantain Family)
33 species from the Plantaginaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Ivy-leaved Toadflax

Maltese name(s) :


Status for Malta :

Archeophyte. Non-native species, but introduced in Malta before 1492 when Columbus discovered the New World.

Frequency :

Very Common     Common     Frequent     Scarce     Rare     Very rare     Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: CHAMEOPHYTE (dwarf or small shrubs)
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection [link]:

Not Protected by Law (LN200/2011 or LN311/2006)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :


Colour of Flowers:

Lilac or Violet

Species Description and Distribution

Habitat in Europe:

Shady rocks and woods; somewhat calcicole.

Preferred habitat in Malta:

Data will be available in the next update of this website.

Botanical Description:

Glabrous to villous . Stems up to 60 cm; middle and upper internodes about equal. Leaves up to 55 x 65 mm, but more usually c. 12 x 15 mm, alternate, reniform to semicircular, rarely suborbicular, with 5-9 rounded to deltate, often mucronate lobes. Calyx 2-2.5 mm. Corolla 9-15 mm, lilac to violet with yellow palate, rarely white; spur 1.5-3 mm, about as long as calyx. Capsule glabrous, usually exceeding calyx. Seeds c. 1 mm, broadly ellipsoid to globose, black, ornamented with high, acute ridges and usually a few tubercles.

Distributional range:

. Native in S. Alps, W. Jugoslavia, C. & S. Italy and Sicilia cultivated for ornament and naturalized on walls (more rarely on stony ground or shingle) throughout most of S., W. & C. Europe.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):

Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):

Switzerland, Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Sicily and/or Malta, Introduced in Albania, Austria and Liechtenstein, the Azores, Belgium, the Balaeric Islands, Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Bulgaria, Corse, Crete, Czeck Republic and Slovakia, Denmark, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Hungary, Portugal, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia and former USSR, Doubtful in B W Doubtful in K Sweden

Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(Euro+Med Checklist, 2017) - Country codes

Ag Ct He Hs(S) Ir It Ma Mo Sa Si(M S) Sl Sr Tn [cAl cAu Au(A) Az(C F J L M P S T) cBe cBl cBr Bu nCa(C F G H L P T) Co cCr Cs Da Es cGa(F) Ge cGr cHb Hb(E) cHo cHs cHu La Lt Lu dMd(M) cNo Po Rf(K NW) Rm Sk Su Tu(A) Uk(K)]

Images (9 images)
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-0.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-1.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-2.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-3.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-4.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-5.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-6.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-7.
   Cymbalaria muralis   -   Image Code: CYMMU-8.

Links & Further info

Google Web

Google Images

Yahoo Web

Yahoo Images




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



The Plant List


Vienna Virt. Hb.





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