by Stephen Mifsud
   25 Jul 2024      ()
External Links:

Tropaeolum majus   (Garden Nasturtium)

Tropaeolum majus  (TROPAEOLACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

Page Contents + Links

General Information Species Images
External Links Support and sales
Submit information Facebook community
Sponsors & Adverts Copyright notes
Detailed species profile
Tropaeolaceae Index Plant Family Index
This profile is brought to you by one of the website's sponsors.
[read more...]
Profile Date Dec-2009 (taxon update: Dec-2009)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Tropaeolum majus - datasheet created on Dec-2009. Retrieved from on 25-Jul-2024

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Tropaeolum majusL.
Published in Sp. Pl. 345, [1231] (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Trophaeum majus Kuntze
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Tropaeolaceae DC. (The Nasturtium Family)
1 species from the Tropaeolaceae family is recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Garden Nasturtium, Indian Cress, Monk's Cress

Maltese name(s) :

Kapuċċinella, Kaboċċinella

Status for Malta :

Invasive Alien. Species that was introduced in Malta any time after year 1492 (Columbus' discovery of the New World), and spreads rapidly to form large invasive populations to the detriment of native flora or ecosystems.

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent    Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: THEROPHYTE ( annual plants, herbaceous )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

October – April

Colour of Flowers:

Orange, Yellow or Red


Not particularly toxic

Name Derivation :

Tropaeolum: Named by Linnaeus from the Greek 'tropaion' meaning trophy. The plant growing on a post reminded him of a classical trophy - with round shields and golden helmets such as those hung as a sign of victory on a battlefield. (Greek origin )
majus: Bigger, larger, greater, superior. This term was often given to plants which are larger or 'more important' compared to other species in the same genus (sometime referred as minor or lesser). (Latin origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Cannot be planted in the wild (rural areas) since the species may be invasive (see ERA guidelines)

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Widely cultivated in gardens, frequently escaping and locally naturalized
Preferred habitat in Malta: Damp habitats and valleys and particularly frequent if close to urban areas.
Botanical Description: Glabrous annual or perennial. Leaves 4-15 cm, peltate, orbicular, subentire to somewhat angular or sinuate. Flowers 3-6 cm in diameter, orange or red to yellow, or parti-coloured; spur 2-4 cm, straight, cylindrical; limb of petal orbicular, more or less equalling claw; 3 lower petals ciliate at base.
Distributional range: South America, Peru to Columbia

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Introduced in  Austria and Liechtenstein, the Balaeric Islands, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics)
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
[Ab(A N) aAE(G) Ag Al Au aAu(A) Az nAz(C F G J L M P S T) aBe(B L) BH nBl(I M N) aBr Bu By nCa(C F G H L P T) Cg aCo Cr aCs Ct Es nGa(C) aGa(F) aGe Gr aHb(E N) He Hs(G) nHs(S) Ir nIt Jo La Le Li Lt nLu nMa Md(M P) Mo No Rf(C E K N NW S) Rm Sa Si(M) nSi(S) Sn Sr Sy nTn Uk(K U)]

Links & Further literature (2 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Contribution to the alien flora of the Maltese Islands: New records, observations on invasive species and taxonomic updates Stephen Mifsud  (2017)
Synthesis of Benzylglucosinolate in Tropaeolum majus L. Jens Lykkesfeldt and Birger Lindberg Meller  (1993)
Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (53 images)
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-0.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-1.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-2.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-3.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-4.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-5.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-6.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-7.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-8.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-9.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-10.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-11.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-12.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-13.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-14.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-15.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-16.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-17.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-18.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-19.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-20.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-21.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-22.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-23.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-24.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-25.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-26.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-27.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-28.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-29.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-30.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-31.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-32.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-33.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-34.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-35.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-36.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-37.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-38.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-39.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-40.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-41.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-42.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-43.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-44.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-45.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-46.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-47.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-48.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-49.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-50.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-51.
   Tropaeolum majus   -   Image Code: TPLMJ-52.

Buy Seeds and Docs
Sales of seeds of wild plants for academic studies, research or personal use. Note that not all species seeds can be exported - depending on Maltese regulations and CITES, and availability depends on season. You are hence kindly requested to first fill and submit a quotation form by which you will get confirmation of the purchase, availability and charges. Currently local orders are not taken.   Online Quotation (Seeds)

Buy images found in this large online collection of Maltese flora photographed by the author (Stephen Mifsud). Prices reasonable and rated differently according size and resolution. Buying images for your projects will support this website. When placing an order please take note of the image code specific for every image in the corresponding species webpage (found beneath each individual photo) since this is required when filling the online ordering form. Images are normally sold as a license with the copyright reserved to the author, but sales of copyright of exceptional images can be considered.   Online Purchase (Images)
Kindly consider to support this website by giving a small donation. This will help to cover some expenses needed to maintain the website and its further development without any adverts. Please login into your PayPal account and use the email: as email address to send your donation   Online Donation

Use this form to submit more information on this species or report mistakes in this webpage. If information supplied is taken from a book, journal or website, please provide the corresponding reference or website address. Your email address is only for internal communication. Please report only Maltese locations for plants that indicated as rare or very rare (refer to the nomenclature section above). Please do report mistakes, broken links, technical errors, typing / grammar errors, misidentifications or taxonomical updates; this will help to improve the website's accuracy. Thanks you! Fill any of the three sections (A/B/C) below and kindly submit the form.     * = required fields.
Plant Species:  *
Your name:   * Your Email:   *
Section A:  Additional Information about this plant species
Own observations: Info from published material (books, journals, website):
Reference of published material:
Section B:   Where have you seen this plant on the Maltese Islands?
Locations in Malta or Gozo where you have seen this plant. Only applies for rare plants.

1:       2:       3:   
4:       5:       6:   
Try to be as concise as possible. Examples: Dingli Cliffs (near chapel), Wied Incita (Zebbug side), Triq il-Kbira (Qormi), Barriera ta' Ghajn Abdul (Xlendi), Fields East of Salib tal-gholja (Siggiewi). GPS co-ordinates are also welcomed!
Section C:  Corrections for mistakes and errors in this plant profile
Section of this page where you found an error (select one)
What is the error/mistake and suggest a correction
AntiSpam Verification: Please answer these simple questions:   20 + 6 =     This website is about
      is supported by:
[ EcoGozo, Ministry for Gozo ] [ Projects in Motion ] [ Sunrise Pet & Garden Centre] [ MycoMalta ]
Webpage is copyright of Stephen Mifsud / - (2002-2022)