by Stephen Mifsud
   29 Jan 2023      ()
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Pinus halepensis   (Aleppo Pine)

Pinus halepensis  (PINACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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Profile Date Oct-2007 (taxon update: none)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Pinus halepensis - datasheet created on Oct-2007. Retrieved from on 29-Jan-2023

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Pinus halepensisMill.
Published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: no. 8 (1768)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Pinus maritima Mill.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Pinaceae Lindl. (The Pine Family)
5 species from the Pinaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Aleppo Pine, Jerusalem Pine

Maltese name(s) :

Żnuber, Siġra tal-Prinjol, Siġra tal-Arżnu

Status for Malta :

Naturalised Alien. Species that was introduced in Malta after year 1492 (Columbus' discovery of the New World) and spreads and integrates to form established, non-invasive populations. Species may become become invasive if it widespreads rapidly.

Frequency :

Data not available - casual or short-lived in the wild from accidental garden or agriculture escape

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: Macro-Phanerophyte ( high trees usually over 10 m high )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Protected by law: Schedule II of [S.L. 549.123] (Trees protected in selected areas)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

All year

Colour of Flowers:



Not particularly toxic

Name Derivation :

halepensis: From or related to Aleppo, the second largest city of Syria. Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. (Latin origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Encouraged to be planted in the wild that is in rural areas including ODZ.

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Data will be available in the next update of this website.
Preferred habitat in Malta: Cultivated and naturalised in many sites, including afforestation programs
Botanical Description: Tree up to 20 m; crown rounded; bark silvery-grey, becoming reddish-brown and deeply fissured. Twigs glabrous. Buds not resinous. Leaves in pairs, with 1-3 layers of hypodermal cells; resin-canals 3-8, submarginal (sometimes with 1 or 2 median). Cone 5-12 x 4 cm, shining, brown; apophysis convex. Seeds 7-8 mm; wing c. 20 mm.
Distributional range: Mediterranean region Krym.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Albania, the Balaeric Islands, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Russia and former USSR, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Introduced in  Portugal
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
? dAE(G) Ag Al BH Bl(I M N) Cg dCr Ct dCy Ga(F M) Gr Hs(G S) Ir It Jo Le Li Ma Mk Sa Si(S) Sy Tn Tu(A) -Tu(E) [cAb(A) cCa Ca(C F G H L T) nCo nLu Md(P) nSi(M) cSl cTcs]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (18 images)
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-0.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-1.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-2.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-3.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-4.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-5.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-6.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-7.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-8.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-9.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-10.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-11.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-12.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-13.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-14.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-15.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-16.
   Pinus halepensis   -   Image Code: PINHP-17.

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