by Stephen Mifsud
   20 May 2024      ()
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Juncus hybridus   (Hybrid Toad Rush)

Juncus hybridus  (JUNCACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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Profile Date Dec-2007 (taxon update: none)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Juncus hybridus - datasheet created on Dec-2007. Retrieved from on 20-May-2024

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Juncus hybridusBrot.
Published in Fl. Lusit. 1: 513 (1804)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Juncus bufonius subsp. hybridus (Brot.) Arcang.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Juncaceae Juss. (The Rush Family)
9 species from the Juncaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Hybrid Toad Rush

Maltese name(s) :

Simar żgħir

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent     Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: THEROPHYTE ( annual plants, herbaceous )
Germination [info]: Monocotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

March – May

Colour of Flowers:



Not particularly toxic

Name Derivation :

Juncus: Latin name for the rush, possibly from 'jungere', = to join or bind, because the stems were used for binding material or weaved into nets or baskets. (Latin origin )
hybridus: related or originating from a hybrid, hence a species from two genetically-mixed parents. (Latin origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Wet, usually saline habitats.
Preferred habitat in Malta: Data will be available in the next update of this website.
Botanical Description: Plant with few to many stems. Stems (5-)10-20(-30) cm, erect and usually stout, with 1-4 usually long leaves below the inflorescence, the lower bracts long, leaf-like. Leaves 2-7(-10) cm, usually 0.5-1 mm wide, flat, with convolute margins. Flowers usually in 1-10 capitate clusters. Perianth-segments 3.5-8.5 mm, usually mostly scarious; outer narrowly ovate to lanceolate; inner narrowly ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or subacute. Stamens 6, 1/3-1/2 as long as the perianth; anthers 0.4-0.8 mm, 2/3-4/5 as long as the filaments. Capsule 3.5-4.5 mm, equalling or slightly shorter than the inner perianth-segments, obtusely angled to ellipsoid, subacute to obtuse, often with a raised style-base; style usually deciduous. Seeds 0.3-0.4 mm, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, usually obtuse, smooth. Flowers occasionally cleistogamous.
Chromosome number: 2n=34
Distributional range: Mediterranean region, Portugal.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
the Balaeric Islands, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Doubtful in Romania, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part)
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
Ag Al Az Bl Ca Co Cr Cy Eg Ga Gr Hs IJ It Ju Li Lu Ma Md Sa Si Tcs Tn Tu(A E) [Br]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (6 images)
   Juncus hybridus   -   Image Code: JNCHY-0.
   Juncus hybridus   -   Image Code: JNCHY-1.
   Juncus hybridus   -   Image Code: JNCHY-2.
   Juncus hybridus   -   Image Code: JNCHY-3.
   Juncus hybridus   -   Image Code: JNCHY-4.
   Juncus hybridus   -   Image Code: JNCHY-5.

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