by Stephen Mifsud
   3 Mar 2024      ()
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Sisymbrium irio   (London Rocket)

Sisymbrium irio  (BRASSICACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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Profile Date Nov-2007 (taxon update: none)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Sisymbrium irio - datasheet created on Nov-2007. Retrieved from on 03-Mar-2024

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Sisymbrium irioL.
Published in Sp. Pl. : 659 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Sisymbrium erysimastrum Lam.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Brassicaceae Juss. (=Cruciferae) (The Mustard or Cress Family)
47 species from the Brassicaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

London Rocket

Maltese name(s) :

Libsiena komuni

Status for Malta :

Naturalised Alien. Species that was introduced in Malta after year 1492 (Columbus' discovery of the New World) and spreads and integrates to form established, non-invasive populations. Species may become become invasive if it widespreads rapidly.

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent    Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: THEROPHYTE ( annual plants, herbaceous )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

February – June

Colour of Flowers:



Mildy toxic, can cause adverse conditions if consumed in large quantities

Name Derivation :

Sisymbrium: Old Greek name for some plants of the mustard family such as cress, but derivation of name is obscure. (Greek origin )

Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Data will be available in the next update of this website.
Preferred habitat in Malta: Data will be available in the next update of this website.
Botanical Description: Annual up to 60 cm, glabrescent or with long, curved hairs. Lower leaves sinuate-pinnatifid, the terminal lobe larger than the laterals; cauline leaves lobed or entire and hastate, shortly petiolate. Inflorescence condensed, the young siliquae overtopping the flowers and buds; pedicels 3-6 mm in flower, up to 20 mm in fruit. Petals 2.5-3 5(-6) mm; anthers c. 0.7 mm. Siliqua 25-65 x 0.7-1.2 mm, torulose; style 0.3-0.7 mm; septum more or less hyaline. Seeds 0.7-1.1 mm.
Chromosome number: 2n=14, 42
Distributional range: Native in S. Europe widely naturalized elsewhere

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
Austria and Liechtenstein, the Balaeric Islands, Bulgaria, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Switzerland, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part), Introduced in  Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Czeck Republic and Slovakia, Ireland, the Netherlands, Hungary, Russia and former USSR,B C W
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
Ar dAu BH Bl(I M N) Bu dCa(C F G H L P T) Co Cr Ct Cy Eg Ga(F) Gr Hs(S) IJ It LS Lt Ma Mk dRm Sa Si(S) Sl Tu(E) Uk(K) [Au(A) Br By Cs Ge Hb(E) He Md(P) No Sk Su Uk(U)]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (10 images)
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-0.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-1.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-2.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-3.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-4.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-5.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-6.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-7.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-8.
   Sisymbrium irio   -   Image Code: SSYIR-9.

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Sales of seeds of wild plants for academic studies, research or personal use. Note that not all species seeds can be exported - depending on Maltese regulations and CITES, and availability depends on season. You are hence kindly requested to first fill and submit a quotation form by which you will get confirmation of the purchase, availability and charges. Currently local orders are not taken.   Online Quotation (Seeds)

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Section A:  Additional Information about this plant species
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Section B:   Where have you seen this plant on the Maltese Islands?
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Try to be as concise as possible. Examples: Dingli Cliffs (near chapel), Wied Incita (Zebbug side), Triq il-Kbira (Qormi), Barriera ta' Ghajn Abdul (Xlendi), Fields East of Salib tal-gholja (Siggiewi). GPS co-ordinates are also welcomed!
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