by Stephen Mifsud
   2 Mar 2024      ()
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Centranthus calcitrapae   (Annual Valerian)

Centranthus calcitrapae  (CAPRIFOLIACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands after year 2000.

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Profile Date Mar-2006 (taxon update: Mar-2006)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (2022). Centranthus calcitrapae - datasheet created on Mar-2006. Retrieved from on 02-Mar-2024

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Centranthus calcitrapaeL.
Published in Hist. Nat. Méd. Fam. Valér. 39 (1811)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Valeriana calcitrapae L.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life] []

Plant Family :

Caprifoliaceae Juss. (The Honeysuckle Family)
11 species from the Caprifoliaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Annual Valerian, Pink Valerian, Cut-leaved Valerian

Maltese name(s) :

Valeriana Roża

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common    Frequent     Scarce     Rare    Very rare    Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: THEROPHYTE ( annual plants, herbaceous )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection :

Not legally protected till the last update of this website (2/Mar/2022)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :

March – May

Colour of Flowers:



Not particularly toxic

Name Derivation :

Centranthus: From the Greek \'kentron\' meaning a spur and \'anthos\' meaning a flower and hence referring to the flowers of this Genus having a spur-like base. (Greek origin )
calcitrapae: From the Latin caltrop (='/foot-trap'/) which is a four-pointed weapon usually positioned on the ground to impede enemy movements. (Latin origin ) 2 = Further info: [1] [2].

Planting in rural areas :

Can be planted in rural areas according to ERA Guidelines

Description, Habitat and Distribution
Habitat in Europe: Waste places.
Preferred habitat in Malta: Rocky places especially near valleys.
Botanical Description: Stems 4-40(-75) cm, simple or branched. Leaves 10-90 x 6-40 mm, orbicular to obovate in outline, the lobes entire to incise-serrate. Partial inflorescences several, capitate. Corolla pink or white, gibbous or shortly spurred with the spur not exceeding the base of the tube; tube 1-2(-3) mm.
Chromosome number: 2n=32
Distributional range: S. Europe.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):
Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):
the Azores, the Balaeric Islands, Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Russia and former USSR, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta
Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(from Euro+Med Checklist, 2019)
  Country codes  
? AE(G) Ag Al Az Bl(M) Ca dCa(C G H P T) Co Cr Ct Ga(F) Gr Hs(G S) It Li Lu Ma Md(M) Sa Si(S) Tn Tu(A) Uk(K) [nAz(F J P S) nBr aGe]

Links & Further literature (0 papers)

Google Web

Google Images

Google Scholar

Research Gate




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



World Flora Online

Plants of the World Online

Vienna Virt. Herb.

RBGE Herbarium

KEW Herbarium




Kindly Email if there are papers and publications about local studies or information about this species to be included in the list above.

Species Images (12 images)
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-0.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-1.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-2.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-3.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-4.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-5.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-6.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-7.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-8.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-9.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-10.
   Centranthus calcitrapae   -   Image Code: CNACT-11.

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