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Rough poppy

Papaver hybridum  L.  (Fam: PAPAVERACEAE.)

Published date of profile: Mar-2003.
Citation: Mifsud S., (Mar-2003) Papaver hybridum on MaltaWildPlants.com

Contents Links   (Detailed Profile)

 
Nomenclature Morphology
Plant Description and Characters Plant Information and Uses
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Nomenclature

Species name :

Papaver hybridum  L.

Name Derivation :

Carl von Linné, Sweden, 1707-1778

Synonyms :

Basionym or principal synonyms: No Main Synonyms
Full list of synonyms: [ PlantList ]   [ IPNI ]   [ Catalogue of Life ]

Plant Family :

Papaveraceae  Juss.
(Poppy Family)

Common name(s) :

Rough poppy

Maltese name(s) :

Peprin tal-Lanzit

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Originating from the Maltese islands

Name Derivation:

Papaver = Latin name for poppy, also "pappa" is the Latin for food or milk, referring to the milky sap of the plant (Latin)
hybridum = hybrid form, genetically mixed species (Latin)

Remarks :

-


Morphology and structure

PLANT STRUCTURE:

Character

Growth Form

Branching

Surface

Description

Erect :

Upright, vertically straight up well clear off the ground.

Basal Branching :

Branches are mostly present at the basal part of the stem.

Hispid :

Having stiff, bristly hairs but not spiny.

General
Picture

Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010)

LEAVES:

Character

Arrangement

Attachment

Venation

Description

Alternate :

Growing at different positions along the stem axis.

Stalked / Petiolate :

Hanging out by a slender leaf-stalk.

None :

No prominent venation visible.

General
Picture

Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010)
 

Character

Leaf Shape

Leaf Margin

Remarks

Description

Multi Pinnate / Pinnatifid :

Compound arrangement of many small, narrow branching and sub-branching leaflets or leaf-lobes which however are not separated into distinct leaflets.

Entire :

Smooth margin without indentations, lobes or any projections.

General
Picture

Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010)

FLOWERS:

Character

Colour

Basic Flower Type

No. of Petals

No. of Sepals

Description

Crimson Red

Polypetalous :

Having separate, free petals.

4

2

General
Picture

  Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010)
 

Character

Inflorescence

Description

Ovary

Stamens

Description

Single and Terminal :

Single, solitary flower at the apex of the stem or flower branch.

Flower is made up of 4 crimson-red, petals with a black spot at its base. The petals do not overlap each other. There is a central globular ovary with numerous indigo or pale blue stamens at its periphery. The 2 hairy sepals fall off when flower opens up.

Superior :

Ovary situated above the flower parts (the calyx, corolla, and androecium). In other words, these are attached below the ovary.

#, Annular Cluster :

Ovary situated above the flower parts (the calyx, corolla, and androecium). In other words, these are attached below the ovary.

General
Picture

Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010)
 

Character

Scent

Average Flower Size

Pollen Colour

Other Notes

Description

None

18-30mm

Indigo to Pale Blue

Pollen colour is very contrasting with the flower.

-


SEEDS:

Character

No. Per Fruit

Shape

Size

Colour

Description

>200

Numerous tiny seeds which ther quantity varies according to the fruit size.

Reniform

Small, kidney-shaped seeds; rather swollen.

Not more from 1mm

Dark gray

General
Picture

Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010)

FRUIT AND OTHER BOTANICAL DATA:

Character

Fruit Type

Colour of Fruit

Subterranean Parts

Other Notes

Description

Indehiscent Operculate Poricidal Capsule :

A fruit having the shape of a pot with a lid (operculum). It stores large number of seeds that escapes from small pores or slits in the lid (at the upper part of the fruit).

Dark Green

(turns brown when fully ripe).

Taproot :

A rooting system where there is the main descending root of a plant having a single dominant large structure from which a network of smaller and long roots emerge.

-

General
Picture

Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010) Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta  - Copyright Stephen Mifsud / Maltawildplants.com / Malta (2002-2010)

Plant description and characters

Life Cycle:

Annual.

Growth Form:

THEROPHYTE (Annuals)

Habitat:

Fields, waysides, weedy waste-ground.

Frequency:

Frequent

Localities in Malta:

Found in few scattered numbers in several fields such as in Mistra, Pieta', Qormi and Bahrija.

Plant Height:

10-50cm.

Flowering Period:

Mar-May

Protection in Malta:

Not Protected by Law (LN200/2011 or LN311/2006)

Red List 1989:

Not listed in the Flora section of the National Red Data Book (Lanfranco, 1989)

Poison:

Not known.

Like most poppies, the rough poppy is an erect annual plant with large bright coloured, single, terminal flowers. The name rough comes from the fact that the seed capsule possess white stiff bristles. Those of the calyx are not so stiff, while those of the stem and leaves further more soft. The main stem branches into few stems at the lower part of the plant and give rise to one single flower.

The leaves are mulit pinnately lobed (pinnatifid) and can reach up to 10cm in length, but normally they are about 6-7 cm. Leaves grow alternately along stem and have have little hair.

The flower bud has an upside-down peduncle and made up of 2 bristly sepals. On blossoming, the flower takes an erect position and the sepals falls. The corolla is rather small (2-5cm) in comparison to other wild poppy flowers and consists of 4 crimson-red petals with a dark purple-black blob at the base. The petals are relatively narrow and rarely overlap when fully mature. A distinctive feature of this poppy is the indigo or pale blue colour of the numerous anthers around the central ovary (carpel). The ovary have about 6 to 8 radiating striped stigmas at the top usually coloured in indigo or violet.

The seed-pod is globular or slightly oval in shape and is covered with stiff bristles. When it dries it forms a indehisicate operculate (having a lid structure) capsule which holds many tiny kidney-shaped seeds which escape out through tiny slits in the upper part of the capsule (at the 'lid') when the stem sways with wind.


Information, uses and other details


Personal Observations

The plant can be mistaken with a similar poppy species - the Papaver argemone. It also have hair and forms a rather small flower. The main differences is that P. argemone

have a scarlet red flowers (instead crimson) and more important, the see photoseed capsule is well elongated (rather than spherical) and less bristly .[SM]

The petals of the plant are very fragile, and they drop off with little stress such as by wind or light shaking of the stem. It is more successful to find the flowers in the morning, just after blossoming, rather in the afternoon since the wind currents during the day may cause the petals to fall. In fact it is useless to cut these flowers to study them at the Lab or studio, because the petals will drop off during cutting or while transporting . [SM]

This poppy is not common in Malta and is rarely found growing on its own. However there is a good chance to be found amongst other common poppies (namely P. rhoeas ) since usually it will be present in mixed communities of poppies. [SM]

Not much more information (such as uses) has been found about this plant both on books and on the internet. If you can supply further info please email me and I will included it in, and give you full credits.

Photo Gallery   (26 Images)

IMAGE: PPVHY-01
Photo of flower having non overlapping (or sometimes marginally overlapping) crimson/red petals.
IMAGE: PPVHY-02
Close up photo of flower showing its anthers with their characteristic light indigo-blue colour, held by upright purple/black filaments.
IMAGE: PPVHY-03
Side-view photo of the flower of Papaver hybridum .
IMAGE: PPVHY-04
Photo of flower showing cluster of stamens around a central oval ovary, overtopped with 6-7, dark purple, linear stigmata.
IMAGE: PPVHY-05
Photo of a young flower, with its petal forming a cup-shaped structure. When mature, the petals open up forming a flattened flower-shape.
IMAGE: PPVHY-06
Photo of a mature flower. The colour of the flowers differs slightly from that of the common poppy (Papaver rhoeas) - it is more crimson (purplish) in this species (Papaver hybridum), and 'pure-red' in the common poppy.
IMAGE: PPVHY-07
Photo of flower and fruit capsule.
IMAGE: PPVHY-08
Photo of a typical flower with 4, large, slightly pleated, crimson-red petals with a small black blob at the base.
   
IMAGE: PPVHY-09
Photo of several flowers decorating our countryside in March and April.
IMAGE: PPVHY-10
Photo of a bud, mature flower and fruit capsule (top right) of this species.
IMAGE: PPVHY-11
-
IMAGE: PPVHY-12
-
IMAGE: PPVHY-13
Photo of bud covered with long bristles, somewhat softer and more dense than those of the fruit.
IMAGE: PPVHY-14
Close up photo of the cluster of stamens with their characteristical pale blue anthers of 3 specimens. Colour varies between different specimens, but also due to different light conditions (shade/sunlight).
IMAGE: PPVHY-15
Scanned image of a dissected flower showing the pale blue/indigo anthers on dark purple filaments. Bristles also present on ovary during the flower stage.
IMAGE: PPVHY-16
Crimson red petals (21mm length) with a black, rather small spot at the base of the petal.
IMAGE: PPVHY-17
Photo of whole plant in situ.
IMAGE: PPVHY-18
Photo of plant in situ showing the bristly bud and seed capsule.
IMAGE: PPVHY-19
Photo of a solitary plant in situ showing leaves, stem and a flower.
IMAGE: PPVHY-20
Scanned image of plant.
IMAGE: PPVHY-21
Photo of the pinnatifid leaf, made up several branching linear segments.
IMAGE: PPVHY-22
Close up photo of the pinnatifid leaves in situ. They are not present along the flowering stem.
IMAGE: PPVHY-23
Close up photo of leaves and buds in situ. Note the black tips of the leaf lobes.
IMAGE: PPVHY-24
Scanned image of the leaf.
IMAGE: PPVHY-25
Scanned image of a seed capsule and a bud. The bristles of the capsule are more stiff and slightly larger from those on the rest of the plant.
IMAGE: PPVHY-26
Close up photo of fruit which is an operculate poricidal capsule. Unlike that of the common poppy (Papaver rhoeas), the fruit is covered with stiff bristles.
IMAGE: PPVHY-27
Close up photo of fruit capsule in situ, where this particular one have an interesting violet stigma.
IMAGE: PPVHY-28
Photo of image of seeds under microscope. Note the texture of the seed coat and the kidney-like shape.

Links & Further info

Google Web

Google Images

Yahoo Web

Yahoo Images

Wikipedia

JSTOR

GBIF

Med Checklist

Cat. of Life

EoL

IPNI

The Plant List

NYBG

Vienna Virt. Hb.

RBGE

KEW

MNHN

Arkive


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