by Stephen Mifsud
   27 Feb 2020      ()
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Juncus acutus   (Sharp-Pointed Rush)

Juncus acutus   (JUNCACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands at or after year 2000.

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Profile Date Sep-2006 (last update: 12-Jan-2019)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (Sep-2006) Juncus acutus retrieved from on 2020-Feb-27

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Juncus acutus L.
Published in L., Sp. Pl. 325 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

No Main Synonyms
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life ]

Plant Family :

Juncaceae Juss. (The Rush Family)
9 species from the Juncaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Sharp-Pointed Rush, Sharp Rush, Spiny Rush

Maltese name(s) :

Simar Lixx, Simar niggież

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common     Frequent     Scarce     Rare     Very rare     Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: HEMICRYPTOPHYTE (prostate plants with flowers close to the ground)
Germination [info]: Monocotyledon

Legal Protection [link]:

Protected by law: schedule III of legal notice LN311/2006. (Conservation requires the designation of SAC)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :


Colour of Flowers:

Inconspicuous or Brown

Species Description and Distribution

Habitat in Europe:

Maritime sands; rarely on damp or saline soils inland.

Preferred habitat in Malta:

Valleys especially near coastal areas. Also grows near watercourses and damp shady sites.

Botanical Description:

Plant densely caespitose; intravaginal shoots present. Stems (15-)50-150 cm, usually 2-4 mm in diameter, rigid, with 2-5 leaves. Inflorescence many-flowered, usually dense, globose, rarely lax and elongated; lowest two bracts well-developed and strongly pungent, usually short. Perianth-segments equal or subequal, oblong, with a wide, scarious margin; outer obtuse or acute; inner wide, with scarious apical auricles. Stamens equalling or slightly shorter than perianth; anthers 1.5-2 mm, several times as long as filaments. Capsule 4-6 mm, much exceeding the perianth, obovoid to ovoid, with a broadly conical to obtuse apex, shortly mucronate. Seeds 80-120, 1.5-2.5 mm; appendages equal.

Chromosome number:


Distributional range:

Mediterranean region and W. Europe, northwards to Ireland.

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):

Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):

Albania, the Azores, the Balaeric Islands, Britain (excl. Northern Ireland and Channel islands), Corse, Crete, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Ireland, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), ex-Jugoslavia, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily and/or Malta, Turkey (European part)

Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(Euro+Med Checklist, 2017) - Country codes

AE(G) Ag Al Bl Br Ca Co Cr Cy Eg Ga Gr Hb Hs IJ It Ju Li LS Lu Ma Md Rf(CS) Sa Si Sn Tcs Tn Tu(A E)

Images (12 images)
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-0.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-1.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-2.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-3.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-4.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-5.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-6.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-7.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-8.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-9.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-10.
   Juncus acutus   -   Image Code: JNCAC-11.

Links & Further info

Google Web

Google Images

Yahoo Web

Yahoo Images




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



The Plant List


Vienna Virt. Hb.





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