by Stephen Mifsud
   1 Oct 2020      ()
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Iris pseudacorus   (Yellow Iris)

Iris pseudacorus   (IRIDACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands at or after year 2000.

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Nomenclature and Basic Information Images
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Profile Date Oct-2010 (last update: 12-Jan-2019)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (Oct-2010) Iris pseudacorus retrieved from on 2020-Oct-01

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Iris pseudacorus L.
Published in L., Sp. Pl. 38 (1753)

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Iris lutea Lam.
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life ]

Plant Family :

Iridaceae Juss. (The Iris Family)
23 species from the Iridaceae family are recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Yellow Iris, Pale Yellow Iris, Yellow Flag Iris

Maltese name(s) :

Fjurduliż tal-ilma, Fjurduliż isfar

Status for Malta :

Indigenous. Present on the Maltese islands before man

Frequency :

Very Common     Common     Frequent     Scarce     Rare     Very Rare     Extinct in the wild

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: GEOPHYTE (bearing underground bulbs, rhizomes, stolons, etc.)
Germination [info]: Monocotyledon

Legal Protection [link]:

Not Protected by Law (LN200/2011 or LN311/2006)

Red List (1989) :

This species has a threatened status and is listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :


Colour of Flowers:


Remarks :

Possibly a true native in the ditches located long time ago below Saqqaja close to Mdina but not recorded again for a century or more due to habitat loss. Plants in old private cultivations might have been propagated in the past from natural populations. This species was recorded from Malta and reported in old literature but has not been seen anymore in the wild for the last couple of decades. It may only exist in private cultivations.

If you think that you have seen this species in the wild from Malta, please email here and provide all details possible and ideally images.

Species Description and Distribution

Habitat in Europe:

Wet Places

Preferred habitat in Malta:

Watercourses and ditches, although now it is only found cultivated in private sites. Re-introduction in valleys is attempted.

Botanical Description:

Stems 60-120 cm, slightly compressed, bearing several leaves. Basal leaves 50-90 cm × 10-30 mm, rather glaucous, with conspicuous midrib. Flowers 4-12, yellow, the lower on long, suberect peduncles; pedicels 20-50 mm; spathes 40-100 mm, herbaceous, with membranous margins. Hypanthial tube 10-15 mm, narrowly infundibuliform. Falls 50-75 × 20-30 mm; limb broadly ovate. Standards 20-30 × 4-8 mm, linear-oblong, shorter and narrower than the style-branches. Capsule 40-80 mm, cylindrical, with a short beak. Seeds dark brown, smooth.

Chromosome number:

2n=24, 30, 32, 34, 40

Distributional range:

Most of Europe

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):

Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):

All except the Azores, Iceland, Svalbard archipelago

Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(Euro+Med Checklist, 2017) - Country codes

AE(G) Ag Al Au Be Bl Br Bt Bu By Co Cr Cz Da Fa Fe Ga Ge Gr Hb He Ho Hs Hu IJ It Ju Lu Ma Md No Po Rf(C CS E N NW S) Rm Sa Si Su Tcs Tn Tu(A E) Uk(K U)

Images (5 images)
   Iris pseudacorus   -   Image Code: IRSPS-0.
   Iris pseudacorus   -   Image Code: IRSPS-1.
   Iris pseudacorus   -   Image Code: IRSPS-2.
   Iris pseudacorus   -   Image Code: IRSPS-3.
   Iris pseudacorus   -   Image Code: IRSPS-4.

Links & Further info

Google Web

Google Images

Yahoo Web

Yahoo Images




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



The Plant List


Vienna Virt. Hb.





Buy Seeds and Docs
Sales of seeds of wild plants for academic studies, research or personal use. Note that not all species seeds can be exported - depending on Maltese regulations and CITES, and availability depends on season. You are hence kindly requested to first fill and submit a quotation form by which you will get confirmation of the purchase, availability and charges. Currently local orders are not taken.   Online Quotation (Seeds)

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Submit further info on this species
Use this form to submit more information on this species or report mistakes in this webpage. If information supplied is taken from a book, journal or website, please provide the corresponding reference or website address. Your email address is only for internal communication. Please report only Maltese locations for plants that indicated as rare or very rare (refer to the Nomenclature section). Please do report mistakes, broken links, technical errors, silly typing / grammar errors, misidentifications or taxonomical updates; this will help to improve the website's accuracy. Thanks you! Fill any of the three sections (A/B/C) below and kindly submit the form.     * = required fields.
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Section A:  Additional Information about this plant species
Own observations: Info from published material (books, journals, website):
Reference of published material:
Section B:   Where have you seen this plant on the Maltese Islands?
Locations in Malta or Gozo where you have seen this plant. Only applies for rare plants.

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Try to be as concise as possible. Examples: Dingli Cliffs (near chapel), Wied Incita (Zebbug side), Triq il-Kbira (Qormi), Barriera ta' Ghajn Abdul (Xlendi), Fields East of Salib tal-gholja (Siggiewi). GPS co-ordinates are also welcomed!
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