by Stephen Mifsud
   7 Aug 2020      ()
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Elaeagnus angustifolia   (Russian olive)

Elaeagnus angustifolia  (ELAEAGNACEAE.) 
Images for this profile are taken from the Maltese Islands at or after year 2000.

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Profile Date Oct-2010 (last update: 12-Jan-2019)
Citation for this page Mifsud, S. (Oct-2010) Elaeagnus angustifolia retrieved from on 2020-Aug-07

Nomenclature and Basic Information

Species name :

Elaeagnus angustifoliaL.
Published in Sp. Pl. 121 (1753).

Synonyms :
(basionym or principal syn.)

Elaeagnus argentea Moench
Full list of synonyms : [Euro+Med] [PlantList] [IPNI] [POWO] [Catalogue of Life ]

Plant Family :

Elaeagnaceae Juss. (The Oleaster Family)
1 species from the Elaeagnaceae family is recorded from the Maltese Islands.

English name(s) :

Russian olive, Persian olive, Silver berry

Maltese name(s) :

Maltese name not known

Status for Malta :

Introduced species for horticulture (flowering plants) or agriculture (herbs or fruiting trees) usually within the last 30-150 years and persist for long after their original location or site is abandoned. They do not widespread but usually remain as a single tree or a very localised population.

Frequency :

Very Common     Common     Frequent     Scarce     Rare     Very rare     Extinct

Growth form :

Raunkiaer lifeform [info]: Macro-Phanerophyte (high trees usually over 10m )
Germination [info]: Dicotyledon

Legal Protection [link]:

Not Protected by Law (LN200/2011 or LN311/2006)

Red List (1989) :

Not listed in the Red Data Book of the Maltese Islands

Flowering Time :


Colour of Flowers:


Remarks :

Produces small, four-petalled, yellow flowers that are highly fragrant, with a vanilla-like scent. Cultivated as an ornament in road sides or parks but some trees persisted and grow on their own without any mediation from man.

Species Description and Distribution

Habitat in Europe:

Planted for ornament and widely naturalised

Preferred habitat in Malta:

Cultivated in few stations where it had persisted in at least two sites that the trees have been cultivated and then abandoned.

Botanical Description:

More or less spiny shrub or small tree up to 7 m. Twigs covered with silvery scales. Leaves 4-8 x 1-2.5 cm, oblong- or linear-lanceolate, green above, covered with silvery scales beneath. Flowers 8-10 mm, appearing with the leaves. Fruit 10-20 mm, ellipsoid, succulent, yellow, covered with silvery scales.

Distributional range:

Naturalised in S. Europe, northwards to Czechoslovakia and C. Russia.

Native region outside Europe:

Temperate Asia

Distributional map in Europe
and the Mediterranean region (2018):

Occurrences in Europe.
(from Flora Europaea pre year 1993):

Introduced in Albania, Austria and Liechtenstein, Bulgaria, Crete, Czeck Republic and Slovakia, France (incl. Monaco and Channel Islands but excluding Corse), Greece, Spain (incl. Andorra but excl. the Balaerics), Hungary, Italy (excl. Sicily and Sardignia), Romania, Russia and former USSR

Occurrences in Europe and the Mediterranean region.
(Euro+Med Checklist, 2017) - Country codes

Ar Sy Tu(A) [Ab(A) nAE AE(G) nAl Au nAu(A) Az(M) nBe(B) Bl nBu By nCo nCr aCs Ct nCy nGa(F) nGe Gg(A G) nGr Ho nHs Hs(S) Hu aIJ aIr nIt nJu aLe aLS nMa Md(P) Mk Mo Rf(C K) Rm aSa Sk Sl nTn nTu(A E) nUk(K) Uk(U)]

Images (10 images)
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-0.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-1.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-2.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-3.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-4.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-5.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-6.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-7.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-8.
   Elaeagnus angustifolia   -   Image Code: ELAAF-9.

Links & Further info

Google Web

Google Images

Yahoo Web

Yahoo Images




Med Checklist

Cat. of Life



The Plant List


Vienna Virt. Hb.





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